Wednesday, March 25, 2020

Hypoxia and Aviation

Introduction The paper presents a review, analysis and a study on hypoxia faced by pilots at higher altitudes. The problems faced by pilots of commercial flights and the ways and means of dealing with them with the use of technology used in military planes will be the point of discussion and focus.Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on Hypoxia and Aviation specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The usage of technology that minimize the conditions of hypoxia at higher altitudes and reduction of its negative effects on pilots who deal with the decision-making process while flying will be analyzed, and recommendations will be given. Literature Review Hypoxia and Flying One of the foremost things of the primary requirements of humans is air. The lack of air, most specifically oxygen leads to hypoxia. Initially, hypoxia has been reported at high altitudes on mountains by mountaineers and after the invention of aero planes, t he pilots and flight attendants are experiencing the effects of hypoxia and are feeling stressed. This can be termed as ‘decompression sickness’ (Aronson K.S; 1991, 26) and has been first recognized or occurred in 1841. According to Aronson K.S (1991, 26) French mining engineer M. Triger ‘noticed symptoms experienced by miners after working in deep mine shafts’ (Aronson K.S; 1991, 26). Number of workers had been prone to joint pains and became vulnerable to paralysis. However, the same sickness can be felt in a reverse manner, which can be known as hypoxia, when pilots fly in the air in a plane. While they fly in the air, they experience decompressed air and don’t have enough oxygen in the air, they breathe that is required for normal metabolic activities of the body. Though the effects of hypoxia are not the same in different pilots, but it cannot be ignored as the effects are noticeable. In this regard, Aronson K.S (1991, 26-27) mentions about Paul Bert who is famous with the name ‘father of altitude physiology’. As per the information provided about Paul Bert’s observations, though the commercial flights flying at a height of around 20,000 feet, with the pressurized atmosphere, still there is a lack of pressure of oxygen as the pressurization is only enough if the aircraft flies at 8,000 feet. That means the commercial aircrafts are flying at a height of around 20,000 feet with the pressurized atmosphere that suits the altitude of 8,000 feet, which results in hypoxia in pilots and flight attendants.Advertising Looking for assessment on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Aronson K.S (1991, 28) explains that when one goes to 18,000 feet above the sea level, the atmospheric pressure will be reduced to half of the standard pressure of one atmosphere. That means the oxygen availability also decreases by half of the amount that is available at the normal atmospheric pressure at sea level. Consequently, the pilots and flight attendants who face this situation almost daily suffer from hypoxia (Aronson K.S: 1991, 25-28).1 Thus, pilots and flight attendants are mostly associated with hypoxia. Though the commercial air craft cabins do have enough induced pressure for the safety and health of passengers and crew, the hypoxia depends on altitude. According to Sharma L (2007), at an altitude of 8,000 feet, people in flight may experience mild hypoxia (Sharma L; 2007), even in the presence of the pressurized atmosphere. That means the pressurized atmosphere is lacking oxygen, and it is necessary to pressurize the flight interiors with oxygen. Exposure to hypoxia can be considered into two categories. Simply being exposed to hypoxia and working in the atmosphere of hypoxia. Pilots and flight attendants do work in the hypoxia atmosphere, and it may result in headache and loss of memory, which may affect future working status of pilots. The hypoxia may lead to stress, headache, backache, disturbed sleep, hearing problems and so on. Hence, ‘the nature and extent of physical/physiological problems and discomforts experienced by pilots’ (Sharma L; 2007) need to be examined, and a study is necessary to decide on the cause for the problems and difference from the normal state they are facing while in and after the flying hours. It is necessary to know about the variation of effects of hypoxia if any on the persons depending on their age and sex. As the effects of hypoxia may or may not present for a long-time, it is necessary to conduct tests on the pilots regarding hypoxia for each flight or in some airlines, they test pilots for the effects of hypoxia before each flight (Sharma L: 2007)2 so that necessary medication could be given.Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on Hypoxia and Aviation specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Howev er, according to Good W.A (1991, 104) the performance of the pilots might be degraded with ‘both prescribed and over the counter medications as well as by the medical conditions for which they are taken’ (Good W.A; 1991, 104). Normally, the medicines of hypoxia are sedative, tranquilizer or antihistamine. These medicines make a pilot ‘much more susceptible to hypoxia’ (Good W.A; 1991, 104) and hence it is necessary for the pilots to minimize the use of over the counter medicines. In addition to the above precautions alcohol can impair the pilot even many hours after its consumption and digestion due to hangover. The impairment of pilot may cause flight accidents and some of the major accidents give ground to the argument that hypoxia may be the reason for the inability that caused the accident. For example, two accidents at Dallas and Fort Worth involving Delta Airlines alongside the accident in Denver by the flight of continental airlines proved that the p ilots are the cause for the fatal happening, and hypoxia may be the reason for it. Another accident in Washington DC due to Air Florida flight, alongside the crash of North West flight in Detroit could be some more examples, where pilots are blamed for the happenings, and hypoxia may be a cause for it. Hence, one cannot rule out the role of hypoxia in flight crashes as it impairs the pilots’ ability to deal with the situation (Good W.A: 1991, 104-105).3 Pressurized Atmosphere and Hypoxia As hypoxia affects the ability of the pilot to deal with the adverse situations, modern aircraft are capable of operating at very high altitudes. The capability is due to the attempt to prevent hypoxia with the pressurized atmosphere. However, due to any unforeseen circumstances as if ‘sudden loss of cockpit pressure presents a life threatening hypoxia situation, requires an immediate response’ (Lindeis A.E, Fraser W.D Fowler B; 1997). To deal with the above-mentioned situations of rapid decompression situations that lead to hypoxia, the modern military aircrafts are having a system that gets the plane down to deal with the decompression and can be provided for commercial aircrafts also in the future.Advertising Looking for assessment on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The rapid get down of the plan in the condition of decompression is to minimize the effect of or slow down the onset of hypoxia by descending to a safe altitude, where the decompression at higher altitude could be controlled. To do this with commercial aircrafts also, a series of experiments had been done to reduce the impairment of pilot performance due to rapid de-compression. However, there exists severe hurdle to these experiments as to measure the performance of a pilot in these circumstances is very difficult as it depends on physiological state of the pilot. To minimize the physiological problems of pilots, the system has two features. One is related to breathing and another to put enough pressure on the body. The breathing system is known as positive-pressure breathing (PPB) through a mask. The second feature that consists of a jerkin with inflatable bladders puts pressure on limbs, chest, lungs and abdomen thus minimizing the effect of decompression or hypoxia. The PPB is t o delay the collapse of blood circulation system and hypoxia as well. The main hurdle to extend the usage of this system to commercial flights also is because it is necessary to provide these suits and masks to all the passengers, which is commercially not viable. However, the present review is regarding the effect of hypoxia on pilots, its consequences and ways and means of minimizing or avoiding it, the ‘first aim of the experiments was to determine the degree of performance impairment under rapid decompression and the extent the PPB can help in reducing it. The hypoxia may result in affecting the ‘visual serial choice reaction time (SCRT) task of the pilots, which may prove fatal and thus immediate reduction of hypoxia is necessary to avoid accidents in commercial planes. In addition to that Lindeis A.E, Fraser W.D Fowler B (1997) explains that the possible causes of performance deficit indicate hypoxia as it decreases the arterial blood oxygen saturation. This decre ase in saturation may result in slowing of reaction time for pilots and may result in accidents. Hence, hypoxia and its effects are to be studied to provide more comfortable and safety measures for pilots to reduce the contexts of performance deficits while flying (Lindeis A.E, Fraser W.D Fowler B: 1997).4 Conclusion: The literature review concludes that the hypoxia results in impairment of the pilot and may affect his/her decision making capability. Hence, it is necessary to contemplate about the safety measures that avoid the effects of hypoxia on pilots and minimize the negative effects on decision making capability. Methodology The methodology involved in this paper is a qualitative analysis of the topic with the help of available literature. The analysis has been supported by literature review, which provided enough background for the aspects that should be considered during analysis. The review starts from finding of effects of hypoxia to the effects of it on pilots and fligh t attendants and the measures that need to be taken to minimize or reduce it. The technology that helps in minimizing the effect of hypoxia and the possibility of usage of it has been reviewed, and the analysis will take place according to the aspects and conclusion of the review and as per the necessities of pilots, which help in reducing flight mishaps and improve air safety. Analysis/Discussion As far as the effects of hypoxia are considered, the ‘provision of the pilot against high sustained accelerations, against hypoxia’ (AEAT; 1993, 2) needs to be considered. The decompression effects at high altitude could be minimized by the technology that provides breathing gas. The breathing air can be provided from ‘engine bleed air’. To do this, ‘molecular sieve oxygen generator, which works on pressure breathing on exposure to acceleration( (AEAT; 1993, 2) is necessary as it provides not only oxygen necessary to breathe comfortably but also the minimum pressure necessary for the body to be normal at high altitudes, which result in decompression. That means to avoid the state of decompression and lung collapse; there should be a system in the cabin that provides pressure and oxygen respectively. To do so, protective garments are necessary as the mask provides oxygen for lungs and garment exerts enough pressure on the body in a decompressed atmosphere. In addition to that it is necessary to provide inward relief to the pilots as they experience suffocation due to lack of supply of oxygen. The cabin and other places in an aircraft need to have systems to replenish the back-up oxygen in case of decompression emergencies as the pilots may not take the right decision while they suffocate. The commercial plane makers can take a cue from the systems in war planes that provide ‘higher degree of protection and mobility’ (AEAT; 1993, 3) for the pilots. In this regard AEAT (1993, 3) explains about liquid conditioning to full cove rage anti g trousers, necessary for the pilots to face decompressed and hypoxia situations. However, the system and the garments provided to the pilots should be selected and made after taking into consideration functional characteristics. They are ‘operational life support, operational escape and survival, and personal’ (AEAT; 1993, 3). The operational life support should enable the pilot to take decisions regarding flight safety, which means the safety of passengers alongside self. The operational escape survival should consider the aspects that help the flight crew and passengers to escape in case of emergency. However, in commercial flights, operational life support is necessary as it is difficult to train the passengers regarding escape and survival attempts. However, operational life support equipment could be provided so that it could help the passengers also in the case of emergency. However, as the paper is about hypoxia and its effects on pilots and their deci sion making, the operational life support for the pilots is of utmost importance. The oxygen masks and pressure breathing garments can provide with the necessary operational life support necessary in the case of decompression and hypoxia faced by the pilots (AEAT: 1993, 1-3).5 This is due to the fact that at high altitudes, ‘the human body experiences hypoxia when it tries to adapt to lower atmospheric pressure and reduced oxygen level as well’ (Penetar D.M, Friedl K.E; 2004, 272). This results in increased heart rate, cardiac output and respiration rate as it is necessary to ensure sufficient supply of oxygen to the body parts. To ensure that supply the above-mentioned activities will increase, and they return to the normal when the atmospheric pressure returns to normal. The changes in respiration, heart output and blood circulation result in change in the mood and it affects the physical and mental performance of the pilots. Hence, the safety measures and systems tha t are to be included in the flights should work in a manner to normalize the above mentioned increased activities. The increased heart output and blood pressure also results in a decrease of endurance of the body, and the consequence is the need of exercise performance. The decrease of endurance decreases the situation that allows to work and yet times may demand the days and weeks of exposure to enough oxygen. Hence, after every flight, it is necessary to examine the pilots for the status of endurance, physical fitness and mental stability as well. If this can be seen as an exaggerated response, they should be checked for the above features once in a stipulated period of time. This is because, Penetar D.M, Friedl K.E (2005, 273) explains that psychomotor performance would be degraded with the ascent of altitudes above 4,300 meters, and the accuracy of the decision-making process would be impaired. Penetar D.M et al (2005) further continues that there would be a delay in reaction an d significant impairment of cognitive performance, which is necessary for the pilots while taking decisions during flight. One measure that can be taken to reduce hypoxia though not up to the desired extent is not to ascend rapidly to altitudes above 1,800 meters (6000 feet) as that may put the individuals at risk and if the pilots are put at risk whole flight will be at risk. Hence, the intensity of effect of hypoxia depends on rapidness in the initial ascent, and if it could be reduced the intensity of the effect of hypoxia also could be reduced. As a result, alongside the systems that deal with decompression and lack of oxygen, the rules and regulations should stipulate the slow ascent to delay and minimize the effects of decompression and hypoxia. Penetar D.M, Friedl K.E (2005, 274) further explains that aviation equipment needs to be designed to provide enough haemoglobin saturation to pilots. This could be helpful in hypoxic environment and these systems are widely used only i n military planes, but not in commercial flights. Hence, these systems need to be modified according to the usage of commercial flights and offered to the pilots so that they could deal with hypoxic conditions successfully and this also helps them to remain fit even after continuous and frequent exposure to hypoxic conditions. The systems that deal with decompression sickness also should be considered as ‘Air Force over the past 20 years, with thousands of simulated altitude exposures revealed a 41 percent incidence of decompression symptoms’ (Penetar D.M, Friedl K.E: 2005, 272-275).6 Conclusion The hypoxia is the worst situation that any pilot can face while flying and can be considered as a major concern in aviation industry. As the safety of the passengers depends on the decision making capability and physiological condition of the pilot and flight attendants, it is necessary to have systems that deal with hypoxia and decompressed atmosphere. The systems should provi de operational life support to enable the pilot to perform the duties in conditions of decompression and hypoxia. The review and analysis concluded on the facts of development of systems that provide oxygen and pressure as well in the high altitudes for pilots. Recommendations It is necessary to provide oxygen and pressure in the cabin of the pilots to increase their decreased endurance due to decompression and hypoxia. To deal with hypoxia, the systems should provide oxygen for breathing. To deal with the decompressed atmosphere, the systems should provide pressure in the cabin so that the pilots can work in normal atmospheric pressure conditions. It is necessary to examine the pilots for their physiological conditions once in a stipulated period to find the negative effects of hypoxia on them if any. There should be institutional arrangements in aviation industry to deal with the decreased physical endurance of pilots. Reference List AEAT. (1993). SAFE Europe Symposium 1993. Air craft Engineering and Aerospace Technology. 66 (1). Pp.2-4. Aronson K.S. (1991). Flight: The Physiological Stresses. In Sheila R. Deitz and William E. Thoms, eds., Pilots, Personality, and Performance: Human Behavior and Stress in the Skies. New York: Quorum Books. Pp. 25-28. Good W.A. (1991). The Post-Deregulation Pilot Job Market: Pilot Error or Personnel Economics?. In Sheila R. Deitz and William E. Thoms, eds., Pilots, Personality, and Performance: Human Behaviour and Stress in the Skies. New York: Quorum Books. Pp.104-105. Lindeis A.E, Fraser W.D Fowler B. (1997). Performance during Positive Pressure Breathing after rapid decompression up to 72000 feet. Human Factors. 39(1). Penetar D.M, Friedl K.E. (2004). The Physiology of Performance, Stress and Readiness, in James W. Ness, Victoria Tepe, and Darren R. Ritzer (ed.) The Science and Simulation of Human Performance: Advances in Human Performance and Cognitive Engineering Research. Volume 5. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. pp .267-305 Sharma L. (2007). Lifestyles, Flying and Associated Health Problems in Flight Attendants. Perspectives in Public Health. 127(6). Footnotes 1 Aronson K.S. (1991). Flight: The Physiological Stresses. In Sheila R. Deitz and William E. Thoms, eds., Pilots, Personality, and Performance: Human Behavior and Stress in the Skies. New York: Quorum Books. P. 25-28. 2 Sharma L. (2007). Lifestyles, Flying and Associated Health Problems in Flight Attendants. Perspectives in Public Health. 127(6). 3 Good W.A. (1991). The Post-Deregulation Pilot Job Market: Pilot Error or Personnel Economics?. In Sheila R. Deitz and William E. Thoms, eds., Pilots, Personality, and Performance: Human Behaviour and Stress in the Skies. New York: Quorum Books. P.104-105. 4 Lindeis A.E, Fraser W.D Fowler B. (1997). Performance during Positive Pressure Breathing after rapid decompression up to 72000 feet. Human Factors. 39(1). 5 AEAT. (1993). SAFE Europe Symposium 1993. Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Techn ology. 66(1). Pp.2-4. 6 Penetar D.M, Friedl K.E. (2004). The Physiology of Performance, Stress and Readiness, in James W. Ness, Victoria Tepe, and Darren R. Ritzer (ed.) The Science and Simulation of Human Performance (Advances in Human Performance and Cognitive Engineering Research, Volume 5). Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp.267-305 This assessment on Hypoxia and Aviation was written and submitted by user Davian Reed to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Friday, March 6, 2020

15 Names and Descriptions of Effects

15 Names and Descriptions of Effects 15 Names and Descriptions of Effects 15 Names and Descriptions of Effects By Mark Nichol We’ve all heard about one behavioral or scientific effect or another, but perhaps we’re not sure we’re getting the name right, or even that we mean the one we think we do when we name it. Here are the labels of the most ubiquitous of effects and the thesis or the scientific principle underlying each one. 1. Bambi effect: Animals widely perceived as visually appealing will be given more consideration or sympathy than those deemed less attractive. (A rare additional connotation refers to homosexual men who engage in heterosexual behavior.) 2. Butterfly effect: A seemingly inconsequential event or incident can have momentous consequences. 3. Domino effect: Each in a series of events or incidents causes the subsequent phenomena. 4. Doppler effect: A wave’s frequency changes in relation to the relative position of the source or the observer. 5. Greenhouse effect: Heat emanating from a planetary surface will be absorbed and redistributed by atmospheric gases back to the surface or into the atmosphere, resulting in an increase in temperature. 6. Halo effect: The more attractive or appealing a person or other entity is, the more favorably they will be evaluated or the more sympathetically they will be treated. 7. Hawthorne effect: People being observed as part of a study will perform better or otherwise as expected simply because they know they are being studied. 8. Hundredth-monkey effect: A thought or behavior is widely and suddenly distributed through a group once a critical number of members of that group are exposed to the thought or behavior. (This theory is basically valid, but the claim of instantaneous transmission has been discredited.) 9. Mozart effect: Listening to music composed by Mozart temporarily improves performance on mental tasks. (This theory has been distorted to suggest that doing so makes the listener smarter; furthermore, additional studies have concluded that the specific composer or music genre, or whether one listens specifically to music at all, is irrelevant; experiencing anything one enjoys may improve performance.) 10. Placebo effect: Patients given secretly ineffectual or simulated treatment will perceive that their condition has improved, or that it will improve, because they believe the treatment has benefited or will benefit them. 11. Pygmalion effect: The more that is expected of people, the better they will perform. 12. Ripple effect: A single incident or occurrence may have consequences and ramifications beyond the scope of the original phenomenon. 13. Snowball effect: See â€Å"ripple effect.† 14. Streisand effect: Attempts to censor or conceal information lead to increased publicity. 15. Trickle-down effect: A consumer item may initially be affordable only for the affluent, but its price will likely decrease until people of more modest means can afford it (at which time it often becomes less attractive to wealthier people). Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Expressions category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Useful Stock Phrases for Your Business Emails80 Idioms with the Word Time40 Synonyms for Praise

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Southwest Airlines Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 6750 words

Southwest Airlines - Case Study Example According to the report findings the remarkable success and innovative ways with that Southwest Airlines has achieved has made this study interesting. It is worth studying the business concept of Southwest, which involves attracting passengers by flying convenient schedules and getting passengers to their destination on time using several strategic initiatives. The efficiency, quality of service, controlled growth, increase in demand for reliable low-fare travel, and other key success factors like leadership, culture, strategy and coordination are some of the factors that contributed to the success of the airline. This project aims to study the relative contribution made by these distinct factors that made this remarkable transformation possible for Southwest. As the discussion declares the Company’s vision statement expresses a â€Å"dedication to the highest quality of customer service delivered with a sense of warmth, friendliness, and individual pride and Company spirit.† The Company has the mission to â€Å"provide safe and comfortable air transportation in commuter and short-haul markets, from close-in airports, at prices competitive with automobiles and buses and to involve customers and employees in the product and the process, making the airline a fun, profitable and quality experience.† From the very start, Southwest Airlines’ goals were to make a profit, achieve job security for every employee, and make flying affordable for more people. (Freiberg & Freiber

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

U.S.Involvement in the Vietnam War and the Effects Today Essay

U.S.Involvement in the Vietnam War and the Effects Today - Essay Example U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War got initial support from the Vietnam government, but later, the government opposed the involvement of United States in the war. Demonstrations opposing the United States involvement in the Vietnam War began in 1964 up to 1970. When John F Kennedy appeared in office, for his first year, he drafted a plan, which clearly depicted the chief objective of U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. The main objective of the involvement was to prevent domination of communists in South Vietnam; in order to create a viable, democratic society (Hall 8). The United States aimed at achieving this objective through military, economic, and political support. The United States also wanted to spread their capitalist ideologies. There were different reasons for opposing the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. One of the reasons was opposition to the draft. The draft threatened low and middle class registrants (Hall 12). Those opposing the draft argued that the draft did not represent them fairly. Apart from the opposition of the draft, protestors made moral influence against U.S. involvement in Vietnam War. The moral argument was mostly opinions of American college students. The students opposed the U.S. involvement and termed it as immoral due to the number of civilian deaths, encountered in the war. Another opposing element against U.S. involvement was that the threat of communism by the United States was not legally justifiable. The U.S. withdrew its military in August 1973. In the Vietnam War, I learnt that, involvement of the United States in the war was opposed by the Vietnam government and some Americans. The chief reason for opposing the U.S. involvement in the war was due to the effects that the war left (Kissinger 32). There was immense loss of life; involving American troops, Vietnam soldiers and Vietnam civilians. This led to a high number of casualties. It is estimated that 58,148 were killed in Vietnam; 75,000 disabled

Monday, January 27, 2020

Competitive Advantages Of Johnson And Johnson Commerce Essay

Competitive Advantages Of Johnson And Johnson Commerce Essay Johnson  Ã‚  Johnson (JJ) was founded more than 120 years ago on a revolutionary idea that doctors and nurses should use sterile sutures, dressings and bandages to treat peoples wounds. Ever since, JJ has brought to the world, new ideas and products that have transformed human health and well-being. Johnson  Ã‚  Johnson has more than 250 companies located in 57 countries around the world involving specially in to three main businesses ; medical devices and diagnostics, pharmaceuticals, and consumer health care. JJ has experienced astonishing growth through global expansion, innovative products and processes, RD, services and quality that make a difference in peoples lives. Johnsons Baby is the most trusted brand of skin care products for mothers all over the world. Like Diaper rash care, baby powders, baby hair care, baby bath products and many more. They offer products and information targeting baby care, skin and hair care, nutritionals and so on. Creating meaningful innovation in health care within the consumer business franchise depends on a research strategy deeply involved in technology and consumer insight. This takes into consideration JJs vision: Bringing Science to the Art of Healthy Living! Major competitors Although the Consumer Health Care division is the smallest of the companys three segments, it includes some of the companys most recognizable brands such as Tylenol, Neutrogena, and Band-Aid. The major competitors of JJ are Novartis and Procter and Gamble in baby care products. Table 1: sales of Major Consumer Franchise in USD Millions Company Name Johnson Johnson (Baby Care) Novartis (consumer health) Procter Gamble (BABY CARE AND FAMILY CARE) 2007 1,982 NA 1,440 2008 2,214 1,125 1,728 2009 2,115 1,118 1,770 Table 1 and graph 1shows the greater sales figure of baby care products of JJ than its competitors which also includes family health care products. From this, we can see the highest market share of JJ in the industry. In baby care, they compete primarily in diapers, training pants and baby wipes, with approximately 35% of the global market share. Graph 1: chart showing sales of table 1. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES PRODUCTS The first competitive advantage for JNJ lies in its product itself which has NO MORE TEARS ® formula patent. Safety, comfort, and gentleness have always been a top most priority in its products. Instead of soap or alcohol it uses various harmless chemicals, and its products go through rigorous clinical testing to ensure the highest standards in baby care. Johnsons baby shampoos and soaps has been a trusted product for the parents which rinses very quickly and cleanly, and doesnt cause irritation to skin, eyes and scalp unlike others products. They have got most number of patented products. BRAND JJ has a history of 120 years of operations which has been trusted by doctors, nurses and parents around the world, now operating across 57 countries with more than 250 operating companies. In 2008, its brand value was worth of $3,582 millions, ranking 92 in the world. The company has been involved in many CSR activities like supporting International Youth Foundation for HIV/AIDS prevention program in Africa, child center in India, educating the people and providing handful tips regarding healthy and safety living, caring babies, and healthy environment. INNOVATION It is interesting to see innovation in terms of its products and processes as well in JJ, and every year it comes up with innovative products. Recently they have introduced new night time product which has been clinically proved to help babies fall asleep well and throughout the night. JJ has strong and well-equipped RD network, state-of-art technology, huge investment capacity, world-class research facilities, highly productive small team settings, and sound scientific methods. Every year JJ invests billions of dollars in RD, in 2008, it had invested 11.9% of its total sales (total sales figure was $7,577 million), ranking 7 in the worlds top companies spending in RD, and topmost in its industry. EXTENSIVE COLLABORATIONS JJ has been exclusively involved in selective licensing, acquiring and forming joint ventures for growth and expansion. Every year they enter in to 100s of strategic alliances and they have acquired more than 35 companies through the world so as to share best practices, acquire and develop cooperative talent, share research initiative, group purchasing and others. For example, in 2006, it acquired consumer section of Pfizer Consumer Healthcare (PCH), which added diverse portfolio in nine additional categories. In same year, it acquired Groupe Vendome, a reputed company in France involved in adult and baby skin product, and now JJ is selling product in their brand name in market of France. The ability to work across company and countries has helped JJ to produce most comprehensive and broad health care products, which has made them unique in the market. Their diversification is within the industry has made possible for cross business collaboration to address unmet health care needs. CORPORATE CULTURE Driven by the companys vision and support from top management, employee diversity has become one competitive advantage for JJ supported by various programs and activities like affinity groups, mentoring programs, diversity university, etc. Employees are encouraged to work in different divisions and roles so as to develop broadly. The business model adapted by JJ fundamentally uses the adaptation of entrepreneurial values. The decentralized corporate structure results in different people with different skills, thoughts, and ideas coming together and collaborating to develop products and technologies. The company has received various awards and recognitions for its best practices. We have the people, proprietary technology and capabilities of many diverse, entrepreneurial companies, this enables us to innovate at the intersections of our businesses. Thats an important competitive advantage and why were truly more than the sum of our many vibrant businesses. Johnson Johnsons Vice Chairman Christine Poon Sustainability and conclusion JJenjoys sustainable competitive advantage mainly due to corporate culture and brand name. Innovation has become possible because of its resource capabilities, extensive collaboration strategies and its business model. It would be surprising to see JJpossessing more core competencies which they have created from 120 years of operations. It has created more value to customers from benefit and cost advantage thorough increasing return rather than economies of scaleThus, we strongly believe that it will make them to stand out in the market in days ahead too.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

How does Frost tell the story in ‘The Wood †Pile’? Essay

In the poem ‘The Wood – Pile’ Robert Frost uses a very tight structure, it is a sum of one stanza which he has used in other poems such as â€Å"Out Out -†. This poem is first person narration, which is another thing that a lot of Frost poems share in common, the setting of the poem is introduced in the first line of the poem ‘the frozen swap’ this releases visual imagery straight away. The last two words of the first line of the poem ‘gray day’ Frost uses internal rhyme the theme of the poem is nature it is set outside and it also it involves tree’s and birds Frost tells the story using this as the stake and the prop is natural resources and the wood-pile is society and because we are using nature up, it is soon going to collapse. Line four of the poem â€Å"No I will go on farther – and we shall see† here the person in the poem is conveying a journey which is long, it is as if this person is trying to prove something to themselves, Frost uses this to tell the story in ‘The Wood-Pile’ showing how this poem is moving forward it is an expedition. ‘The hard snow held me, save where now and then’ the words used here come across as very harsh as snow is normally soft not hard, this inflicts the change in the nature in the area of where the narrator is it always uses visual imagery so the picture of the woods is shown. ‘A small bird flew before me’ A technique that Frost uses is anthropomorphism which is used for the bird, as he shows him as if it is his â€Å"last stand†. Whilst the bird is being spoken about, the narrator Is distracted by a piece of wood , Frost uses this to tell the story displaying how you can be distracted easily causing you to forget about the previous, this is conveyed very well within the next few lines as the bird is forgotten of and something new has become a sudden interest, ‘And then there was a pile of wood for which I forgot him and let his little fear carry him’ here it is clear that wood has been discovered, foreshadowing there is more to the wood adding onto the whole story of the poem. ‘It was older sure than this year’s cuttings or even last years or the years before’ the wood has been cut up and left, we know this as it has been chopped, this gives a mystery to the poem as it immediately involves somebody else, the person who had chopped the wood, another mystery is why the wood has been left, Frost tells the story as it leads a wondering into how humanity can spend so much time creating a structured order only to abandon it. The last line of the poem related back to the ‘frozen swamp’ ending the poem at where it had begun.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Roanoke: the Lost Colony

Roanoke: The Lost Colony Roanoke was the first attempt at creating an English settlement in the New World. It began in 1587 when Sir Walter Raleigh gathered over 100 people to voyage to Roanoke Island on North Carolina’s coast. Three years later, all of Roanoke’s inhabitants were gone with barely any evidence that they even lived there. The only clues found were the letter â€Å"CRO† carved into the trunk of a tree. On the nearby palisades, John white found the word â€Å"CROATOAN† carved into the surface.I believe the colonists of Roanoke voyaged to the nearby island of Croatoan and were absorbed by the native tribes. White, finding the clues, then began trying to identify the fate of the villagers. Before leaving, he told the villagers to leave clues as to their location should they have to leave the colony. White knew of an island called Croatoan south of Roanoke. A storm forced White and his men back to England before he could search for his family.Ano ther clue as to where the colonists went is the fact that several of the natives in Croatoan describe their ancestors as white people. Later, there were natives found with gray eyes which were only found among these natives and no others. The natives also claim their ancestors came from â€Å"Roanoke in Virginia. † The Pembrokes, the natives of Croatoan, spoke pure Anglo-Saxon English and bore the last names of many of the lost colonists. The natives even had fair eyes, light hair, and Anglo bone structure.These clues all point to the colonists voyaging into Croatoan and making a settlement there. Apart from telling the colonists to leave Clues, White also told them to carve a Maltese cross above their destination. Because no cross was found at Roanoke, it leads me to believe the colonists had to leave in a hurry. There could have been a threat of invasion which gave the colonists little time to escape and leave clues to their whereabouts. The lost colony of Roanoke was aband oned and its inhabitants voyaged into the wilderness and joined local native tribes.